Still, it enabled ordinary to enjoy a standard of living far better than that of their forebears. Traditional agrarian societies had generally been more stable and progressed at a much slower rate before the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy. In countries affected directly by it, the Industrial Revolution dramatically altered social relations, creating a modern, urban society with a large middle class. In most cases, the GDP has increased rapidly in those capitalist countries that follow a track of industrial development, in a sense recapitulating the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution — The term Industrial Revolution, like similar historical concepts, is more convenient than precise.
It is convenient because history requires division into periods for purposes of understanding and instruction and because there were sufficient innovations at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries to justify the choice of this as one of the periods.
The term is imprecise, however, because the Industrial Revolution has no clearly defined beginning or end. The term Industrial Revolution must thus be employed with some care.
It is used below to describe an extraordinary quickening in the rate of growth and change and, more particularly, to describe the first years of this period of time, as it will be convenient to pursue the developments of the 20th century separately. The Industrial Revolution, in this sense, has been a worldwide phenomenon, at least in so far as it has occurred in all those parts of the world, of which there are very few exceptions, where the influence of Western civilization has been felt.
Beyond any doubt it occurred first in Britain, and its effects spread only gradually to continental Europe and North America. Equally clearly, the Industrial Revolution that eventually transformed these parts of the Western world surpassed in magnitude the achievements of Britain, and the process was carried further to change radically the socioeconomic life of Asia, Africa, Latin Americaand Australasia.
The reasons for this succession of events are complex, but they were implicit in the earlier account of the buildup toward rapid industrialization. Partly through good fortune and partly through conscious effort, Britain by the early 18th century came to possess the combination of social needs and social resources that provided the necessary preconditions of commercially successful innovation and a social system capable of sustaining and institutionalizing the processes of rapid technological change once they had started.
This section will therefore be concerned, in the first place, with events in Britain, although in discussing later phases of the period it will be necessary to trace the way in which British technical achievements were diffused and superseded in other parts of the Western world.
Power technology An outstanding feature of the Industrial Revolution has been the advance in power technology. At the beginning of this period, the major sources of power available to industry and any other potential consumer were animate energy and the power of wind and water, the only exception of any significance being the atmospheric steam engines that had been installed for pumping purposes, mainly in coal mines.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. SEE ALSO, Europe Transformed Author: Lewis Hackett Date: Industrialization: The First Phase. Most products people in the industrialized nations use today are turned out swiftly by the process of mass production, by people (and sometimes, robots) working on assembly lines using power-driven machines. Why did the Industrial Revolution Start in England? By the end of the 19th century, the island of Great Britain, which is about the size of the state of Louisiana, controlled the largest empire in the history of the world—an empire that covered one quarter of the world’s land mass. The Industrial Revolution was a transformation of human life circumstances that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries (roughly to ) in Britain, the United States, and Western Europe due in large measure to advances in the technologies of industry. The Industrial Revolution was characterized by a complex .
It is to be emphasized that this use of steam power was exceptional and remained so for most industrial purposes until well into the 19th century. Steam did not simply replace other sources of power: The same sort of scientific inquiry that led to the development of the steam engine was also applied to the traditional sources of inanimate energy, with the result that both waterwheels and windmills were improved in design and efficiency.
Numerous engineers contributed to the refinement of waterwheel constructionand by the middle of the 19th century new designs made possible increases in the speed of revolution of the waterwheel and thus prepared the way for the emergence of the water turbine, which is still an extremely efficient device for converting energy.
Windmills Meanwhile, British windmill construction was improved considerably by the refinements of sails and by the self-correcting device of the fantail, which kept the sails pointed into the wind.
Spring sails replaced the traditional canvas rig of the windmill with the equivalent of a modern venetian blind, the shutters of which could be opened or closed, to let the wind pass through or to provide a surface upon which its pressure could be exerted.
In mills equipped with these sails, the shutters were controlled on all the sails simultaneously by a lever inside the mill connected by rod linkages through the windshaft with the bar operating the movement of the shutters on each sweep.
The control could be made more fully automatic by hanging weights on the lever in the mill to determine the maximum wind pressure beyond which the shutters would open and spill the wind. Conversely, counterweights could be attached to keep the shutters in the open position.
With these and other modifications, British windmills adapted to the increasing demands on power technology. But the use of wind power declined sharply in the 19th century with the spread of steam and the increasing scale of power utilization.
Windmills that had satisfactorily provided power for small-scale industrial processes were unable to compete with the production of large-scale steam-powered mills. Steam engines Although the qualification regarding older sources of power is important, steam became the characteristic and ubiquitous power source of the British Industrial Revolution.
Little development took place in the Newcomen atmospheric engine until James Watt patented a separate condenser inbut from that point onward the steam engine underwent almost continuous improvements for more than a century.
By keeping the cylinder permanently hot and the condenser permanently cold, a great economy on energy used could be effected.We learned that industrial production increased tremendously, bringing wealth and power to Great Britain throughout the 19th century.
But we have yet to explore the effects of industrialization on society, on the daily living and the working conditions of common people.
The most significant technological advance made during the industrial Revolution was the. The most important factor influencing the peaceful midcentury reforms in great britain was.
Ap euro chapter 22 59 terms. Ch 22/23 ap euro. OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR. 5 terms. Key legislation. The Industrial Revolution also led to an increase in Great Britain’s population because people had better housing and better medical care in the towns and, thus, lived longer.
Factory in times of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution caused sweeping changes to Britain by ushering in scientific advancements, growth of technology, improvements to the fields of agriculture . Industrialization And Western Global Hegemony Industrial Rivalries And The Partition Of The World, Author: Schwartz, Stuart B.
Date: Industrial Rivalries And The Partition Of The World, c. A History of the English-Speaking Peoples (The Birth of Britain / The New World / The Age of Revolution / The Great Democracies).