Establishing reliability and validity essay

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Establishing reliability and validity essay

Outline[ edit ] The book includes the authors' calculation of average IQ scores for 60 countries, based on their analysis of published reports. It reports their observation that national IQ correlates with gross domestic product per capita at 0.

The authors believe that average IQ differences between nations are due to both genetic and environmental factors. The authors write that it is the ethical responsibility of rich, high-IQ nations to assist poor, low-IQ nations financially, as it is the responsibility of rich citizens to assist the poor.

Rather than do their own IQ studies, the authors average and adjust existing studies and use other methods to create estimates. For of the nations, no studies were available.

In those cases, the authors have used an estimated value by taking averages of the IQs of neighboring or comparable nations. For example, the authors arrived at a figure of 84 for El Salvador by averaging their calculations of 79 for Guatemala and 88 for Colombia. To obtain a figure for South Africa, the authors averaged IQ studies done on different ethnic groups, Establishing reliability and validity essay in a figure of The figures for Colombia, Peru, and Singapore were arrived at in a similar manner.

In some cases, the IQ of a country is estimated by averaging the IQs of countries that are not actually neighbors of the country in question. For example, Kyrgyzstan 's IQ is estimated by averaging the IQs of Iran and Turkey, neither of which is close to Kyrgyzstan—China, which is a geographic neighbor, is not counted as such by Lynn and Vanhanen.

This is because ethnic background is assumed to be more important than proximity to other nations when determining national IQ. To account for the Flynn effect an increase in IQ scores over timethe authors adjusted the results of older studies upward by a number of points.

Scores that do not support the theory[ edit ] In several cases the actual GDP did not correspond with that predicted by IQ. In these cases, the authors argued that differences in GDP were caused by differences in natural resources and whether the nation used a planned or market economy.

The authors explain Qatar's disproportionately high GDP by its high petroleum resources. Similarly, the authors think that large resources of diamonds explain the economic growth of the African nation Botswanathe fastest in the world for several decades.

The authors also predicted that communist nations whom they believe have comparatively higher IQs, including China and North Koreacan be expected to rapidly gain GDP growth by moving from centrally planned economies to more capitalist based economic systemswhile predicting continued poverty for sub-Saharan African nations no matter what economic systems are used.

Several negative reviews of the book have been published in the scholarly literature.

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Susan Barnett and Wendy Williams wrote that "we see an edifice built on layer upon layer of arbitrary assumptions and selective data manipulation. The data on which the entire book is based are of questionable validity and are used in ways that cannot be justified.

Establishing reliability and validity essay

The review concludes that "This is not so much science, then, as a social crusade. However, the review concluded that the book was "a powerful challenge to economic historians and development economists who prefer not to use IQ as an analytical input", but that it's likely those scholars will deliberately ignore this work instead of improving it.

It is therefore difficult to find much to recommend in this book. She criticized the book's authors for not establishing cross country comparability and reliability of IQ scores, for relying on simple bivariate correlations, for not considering or controlling for other hypotheses, and for confusing correlation with causation.

Ervik stated, "The arguments put forward in the book to justify such comparisons [between the average IQ in different countries and their GDP] seem at best vague and unconvincing. At worst, passages in the book appear to be biased and unscientific The authors fail to present convincing evidence and appear to jump to conclusions.

The IQ figures are based on 3 different studies, one study in 34 nations, and two studies in 30 nations. There were actual tests for IQ in 81 nations. A test of 9- to year-olds in Barbados, of 50 to year-olds in Colombia, of 5- to year-olds in Ecuador, of 6- to year-olds in Egypt, and of 48 to year-olds in Equatorial Guinea, all were taken as measures of national IQ.

The review criticized the principal assertion of the authors that differences in intelligence, attributed to genetics, account for the gap between rich and poor countries.

Berhanu criticized the book as being based in a "racist, sexist, and antihuman" research tradition and alleged that "the low standards of scholarship evident in the book render it largely irrelevant for modern science". For example, in one study from Nigeria that involved seven samples, Lynn only used results from the two lowest scoring samples.

Lynn did not provide an explanation about why the 5 highest scoring samples were ignored. Discussing both books, Earl Hunt writes that although Lynn and Vanhanen's methodology and conclusions are questionable, they deserve credit for raising important questions about international IQ comparisons.

Hunt writes that Lynn and Vanhanen are correct that national IQs correlate strongly with measures of social well-being, but they are unjustified in their rejection of the idea that national IQs could change as a result of improved education.K Writing - Assessment Oregon K Literacy Framework—Writing (Writing Framework) A comprehensive writing assessment system for K is explicitly linked to writing goals and uses multiple data sources to evaluate student writing.

Metaphysics: Metaphysics, the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of things—to determine the meaning, structure, and principles of whatever is insofar as it is. Although this study is popularly conceived as referring to anything excessively subtle .

Essay on the Reliability and Validity of Test Parul Kumar Advertisements: Reliability and Validity of Test. Test scores must be trustworthy if they are to be used for scientific purposes. To a psychologist this means that they must be both reliable and valid.

In , Paul Graham wrote How To Disagree Better, ranking arguments on a scale from name-calling to explicitly refuting the other person’s central point.. And that’s why, ever since , Internet arguments have generally been civil and productive.

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Graham’s hierarchy is useful for its intended purpose, but it isn’t really a hierarchy of disagreements. Goldsmiths, University of London is in South East London. We offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees as well as teacher training (PGCE), Study Abroad and short courses.

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Shame and Doubt. Autonomy versus shame and doubt is the second stage of Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately 3 years.

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