Last Edited March 4, Prejudice refers to an unsubstantiated, negative pre-judgment of individuals or groups, usually because of ethnicity, religion or race. Discrimination is the exclusion of individuals or groups from full participation in society because of prejudice. In the arrival of the Komagata Maru in Vancouver with East Indian immigrants touched off violent demonstrations in Vancouver. As a result they were refused entry courtesy Vancouver Public Library.
See Article History Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict Discrimination of ethnic minorities which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedentsand possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines.
The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters. Ethnic conflict is one of the major threats to international peace and security.
Conflicts in the BalkansRwandaChechnyaIraqIndonesiaSri LankaIndiaand Darfuras well as in Israelthe West Bankand the Gaza Stripare among the best-known and deadliest examples from the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
The destabilization of provinces, states, and, in some cases, even whole regions is a common consequence of ethnic violence.
Ethnic conflicts are often accompanied by gross human rights violations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, and by economic decline, state failureenvironmental problems, and refugee flows.
Violent ethnic conflict leads to tremendous human suffering. Ethnic identity, ethnicity, and ethnic group The terms ethnic and ethnicity have their roots in the Greek word ethnos, which describes a community of common descent.
In ethnic conflict research, the terms ethnic group, communal group, ethnic community, people, and minority are mostly used interchangeably. Two elements provide the basis to identify ethnic groups: Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide Discrimination of ethnic minorities origins of communal identity.
Those include shared historical experiences and memories, myths of common descent, a common culture and ethnicity, and a link with a historic territory or a homeland, which the group may or may not currently inhabit.
Elements of common culture include language, religion, laws, customs, institutions, dress, music, crafts, architecture, and even food. Ethnic communities show signs of solidarity and self-awareness, which are often expressed by the name the group gives itself.
Ethnic identity is formed by both tangible and intangible characteristics. As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity. If the group takes steps to confront the threats, its ethnicity becomes politicized, and the group becomes a political actor by virtue of its shared identity.
On the other side, ethnicity is just as much based on intangible factors—namely, on what people believe, or are made to believe, to create a sense of solidarity among members of a particular ethnic group and to exclude those who are not members.
Theories of ethnic identity Although communal identity provides the foundation for the definition of ethnic groups, disagreement exists over how ethnic identity forms and how it changes over time.
A first school of thought, known as the primordialist approach, explains ethnicity as a fixed characteristic of individuals and communities. According to primordialists, ethnicity is embedded in inherited biological attributes, a long history of practicing cultural differences, or both. Ethnic identity is seen as unique in intensity and durability and as an existential factor defining individual self-identification and communal distinctiveness.
Mobilization of ethnic identity and ethnic nationalism is a powerful tool to engage the group in a political struggle. Ethnic divisions and ethnic conflict are considered inherent to multiethnic societies and a common phenomenon.
The primordialist focus on fixed identities, however, fails to recognize variations in ethnic group formation, ranging from relatively short-term associations to long-standing, strong, and cohesive groups with biological and historical roots. To account for these differences, a second approach, referred to as instrumentalist, was developed, which understands ethnicity as a device used by individuals and groups to unify, organize, and mobilize populations to achieve larger goals.
Instrumentalists hold that ethnicity has very little or no independent ranking outside the political process and is in its character comparable to other political affiliations such as ideological beliefs or party membership. According to instrumentalists, ethnicity is a result of personal choice and mostly independent from the situational context or the presence of cultural and biological traits.
Ethnic conflict arises if ethnic groups compete for the same goal—notably power, access to resources, or territory. Ethnic conflict is thus similar to other political interest conflicts.
Instrumentalism is criticized by those who argue that ethnicityin contrast to political affiliations, cannot be willfully decided on by individuals and is instead rooted in and regulated by the society as a whole.
Advocates of another school of thought, known as social constructivism, focus on the social nature of ethnic identity. In their view, ethnicity is neither fixed nor entirely open. Individuals and groups cannot avoid the fact that ethnic differences exist, but they determine for themselves what to make of those differences.
Ethnic conflict depends thus to a great extent on the opportunities provided for the group to reach their goals. Violent conflict is caused mainly by social and political systems that lead to inequality and grievances and do not offer options for the peaceful expression of differences.
Changes in social interactions, such as increased tensions or violent conflict, influence the socially constructed nature of ethnicity. Social constructivists explain the tremendous atrocities committed during ethnic conflicts—such as genocide, mass rape, and ethnic cleansing—by the fact that, by virtue of ethnicity, ultimately everyone becomes involved in the struggle, regardless of their intent.
A fourth view, that of psychocultural interpretations, ascribes to ethnicity deep cultural and psychological roots, which make ethnic identity extremely persistent. Ethnic identity cannot be changed, only made more tolerant and open-minded. Ethnic conflict is thus not simply a political event but a drama that challenges the very existence of the group by contesting its identity.Note: resolutions in Arabic are available starting from Ethnic definition, pertaining to or characteristic of a people, especially a group (ethnic group) sharing a common and distinctive culture, religion, language, or the like.
See more. Can We All Get Along?: Racial and Ethnic Minorities in American Politics [Paula McClain, Jessica Carew] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In a nation built by immigrants and bedeviled by the history and legacy of slavery and discrimination, how do we.
Embedded Racism: Japan's Visible Minorities and Racial Discrimination [Debito Arudou] on vetconnexx.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Despite domestic constitutional provisions and international treaty promises, Japan has no law against racial discrimination. Consequently. SES Impacts the Lives of Many Ethnic and Racial Minorities Discrimination and Marginalization Discrimination and marginalization can serve as a hindrance to upward mobility for ethnic and racial minorities seeking to escape poverty.
The APA Stress in America Survey found that most Americans feel they have experienced some type of discrimination. People from racial or ethnic minorities were most likely to report experiences of day-to-day discrimination.