Intelligence 1 Intelligence Intelligence is a term describing one or more capacities of the mind.
Ancient views[ edit ] Most ancient cultures, including thinkers of Ancient Greece Ancient Chinaand Ancient India lacked the concept of creativity, seeing art as a form of discovery and not creation.
The ancient Greeks had no terms corresponding to "to create" or "creator" except for the expression "poiein" "to make"which only applied to poiesis poetry and to the poietes poet, or "maker" who made it.
Plato did not believe in art as a form of creation. Asked in The Republic "Will we say, of a painter, that he makes something?
Boorstin"the early Western conception of creativity was the Biblical story of creation given in the Genesis. In the Judaeo-Christian tradition, creativity was the sole province of God; humans were not considered to have the ability to create something new except as an expression of God's work.
However, none of these views are similar to the modern concept of creativity, and the individual was not seen as the cause of creation until the Renaissance. However, this shift was gradual and would not become immediately apparent until the Enlightenment. In particular they refer to the work of Francis Galtonwho through his eugenicist outlook took a keen interest in the heritability of intelligence, with creativity taken as an aspect of genius.
In his work Art of Thought, published inWallas presented one of the first models of the creative process. In the Wallas stage model, creative insights and illuminations may be explained by a process consisting of 5 stages: Wallas' model is often treated as four stages, with "intimation" seen as a sub-stage.
Wallas considered creativity to be a legacy of the evolutionary process, which allowed humans to quickly adapt to rapidly changing environments.
Simonton  provides an updated perspective on this view in his book, Origins of genius: Darwinian perspectives on creativity. Guilford 's address to the American Psychological Associationwhich helped popularize the topic  and focus attention on a scientific approach to conceptualizing creativity.
It should be noted that the London School of Psychology had instigated psychometric studies of creativity as early as with the work of H.
key The major or minor scale on which a composition is based. chromatic scale Twelve consecutive half steps within the range of an octave. whole-tone scale Six consecutive whole steps within the range of an octave. pentatonic scale Five-note scale. Emanuel Winternitz advocated the term ‘musical iconology’, although he himself rarely penetrated to the analytical level that it implies. That term, because it is so loaded, is rarely used. More recently, art history, like musicology has paid increasing attention to semantic pluralism in matters of interpretation. the major themes and writing pertaining to each area of study and to outline key trends . development and progression of creativity can be better recognised in.
Hargreaves into the Faculty of Imagination,  but it did not have the same impact. Statistical analysis led to the recognition of creativity as measured as a separate aspect of human cognition to IQ -type intelligence, into which it had previously been subsumed.
Guilford's work suggested that above a threshold level of IQ, the relationship between creativity and classically measured intelligence broke down. Kaufman and Beghetto introduced a "four C" model of creativity; mini-c "transformative learning" involving "personally meaningful interpretations of experiences, actions and insights"little-c everyday problem solving and creative expressionPro-C exhibited by people who are professionally or vocationally creative though not necessarily eminent and Big-C creativity considered great in the given field.
This model was intended to help accommodate models and theories of creativity that stressed competence as an essential component and the historical transformation of a creative domain as the highest mark of creativity.Mar 25, · the pioneer.
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The results suggest that self-reported low dream recallers are capable of recalling dreams as well as self-reported high dream recallers—at least using a 2-week home diary recall task.
One possible explanation for these findings is that low recallers are simply poor estimators of their actual recall.
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This paper proposes a novel disaster management system called HAC-ER that addresses some of the challenges faced by emergency responders by enabling humans and agents, using state-of-the-art algorithms, to collaboratively plan and carry out tasks in teams referred to as human-agent collectives.